Oral Insulin Patch for Diabetes Sufferers on the Horizon
For several years, scientists have been experimenting with oral insulin delivery mechanisms, including the use of liposomes, to shield insulin from being destroyed by gastrointestinal (GI) secretions customarily used to break down food particles into items our body can extract energy from. Hence, subcutaneous injections are thus far the only effective delivery system of the hormone to keep blood glucose levels within normal parameters in diabetics. Contributing to the efforts of creating a needleless insulin delivery system, scientists at University of California, Santa Barbara have developed an oral insulin patch made from mucoadhesive polymers, to help stick to the intestinal wall lining, in addition to being treated with an intestinal permeation enhancer, for better absorption and exposure to the bloodstream, to be encapsulated into a pill with an enteric coating to withstand the corrosive environment of the GI tract.
Once swallowed, the patch is designed to be released from the pill at a designated time and expected to attach to the intestinal wall for superior insulin delivery into the bloodstream. When patch adhesiveness was tested after 30 minutes upon being attached, stickiness was found to be “excellent” based on the force required to pull off the patch. Release of drug was tested on pig and rat intestines, in which 100 percent of the insulin and permeation enhancer was disseminated within five hours.
In animal studies, the scientists found insulin patches with 10 percent permeation enhancers to be the most effective than control groups, dropping blood glucose levels to 70 percent of normal levels.
Studies are ongoing to discover ways to deliver insulin faster as well as prolong the effects of the patch. For diabetic sufferers who cannot rely on oral medications to control their blood sugar levels, an oral insulin patch may be just the ticket to forgoing the daily prick.