C. difficile Treatment

Utilizing Fecal Microbiota Treatment Modalities for C. difficile Treatment

An infection with Clostridium difficile, or C. difficile, is an unpleasant matter resulting in severe diarrhea and ultimately dehydration with its sequelae of electrolyte imbalances that has profound impacts on the heart and the nervous system. Most cases occur in hospitals, though it has been known to occur in the community within people who are typically immunocompromised.

A powerful new C. difficile treatment method has been pioneered by the University of Alberta, Canada, in which capsules containing bacteria from the fecal material of a healthy donor have been developed, intended for ingestion by a C. difficile patient, so as to help restore balance to the gut. The fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) procedure consists of feces from a healthy donor which have been filtered and processed until it contains only bacteria, and this filtered material is then encapsulated within a gel that breaks down easily in the recipient’s gut.

The human digestive and immune systems are host to literally hundreds of different kinds of gut bacteria, whose combined purpose is to assist with digestion and the body’s immune system. When someone becomes infected with any kind of harmful agent that requires the use of antibiotics, the normal healthy balance in the gut can be severely disrupted. This creates a window of opportunity for microorganisms such as Clostridium difficile to enter the picture and create havoc in the gut.

Patients who participated in the study declared that there was no unpleasant odor or taste associated with the capsules, because the transferred stool bacteria are encased in a gel included within the capsule. Not only are the capsules close to 100 percent effective, but they are far less invasive compared to a colonoscopy.

In addition to the less invasive nature of the treatment, the capsules are inexpensive, and does not involve any form of sedation for the person being treated. The capsules can also be administered in a doctor’s office, with no preparation necessary.

As a large percentage of people who have contracted C. difficile have been bothered by the recurrent nature of the disease, the recurrence factor seems to have been eliminated in participants who ingested FMT capsules as a form of C. difficile treatment. Once the gut of an FMT recipient has been restored to its normal healthy balance by the bacteria included in the capsules, recurrence is no longer an issue, and repeat treatments have not been necessary.

Many of the participants in the study experienced significant relief within just a few days of undergoing treatment. Since only a single treatment is needed to achieve success, with no ongoing treatments being necessary, there could hardly be a faster, more effective solution to the problem. To this point, no adverse reactions have been reported by patients and have been well tolerated thus far.

However, to achieve effective C. difficile treatment results, a fairly large number of capsules have to be ingested all within the space of an hour. In order for the desired effects to be achieved, it is necessary to deliver a high volume of healthy donor fecal material, and this must be accomplished by ingesting as many as 40 of the prepared capsules in a relatively short period of time—a small price to pay for relief.

Apart from transforming the way C. difficile treatments will be administered, it is expected that the capsule delivery method will entirely revolutionize the way FMT will be administered in the future, because of its ease of use, low cost, low impact on recipients, and extremely high rate of success.

Dipstick Technology

Dipstick Technology Allows for Fast Disease Detection Without Sophisticated Equipment

Scientists at the University of Queensland in Australia (UQ) have developed a simple and effective method for diagnosing diseases in living organisms, which has implications for use on isolated regions where advanced technology has not yet populated. Dubbed ‘dipstick technology,’ the process can purify and analyze ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from microorganic samples in less than a minute—without the need for special equipment or personnel requiring a particular skill set.

Pathogens can consist of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms that may trigger diseases in plants, animals, and humans. Being capable of analyzing biologic samples quickly will make devising of treatment plans easier and faster, which can prove enormously beneficial when time is critical.

 The dipstick has already been used on isolated plantations in Papua New Guinea with great success, allowing for the exposure of pathogens in trees, humans, livestock, and water sources for drinking. Even in low-tech settings, disease can quickly be isolated and evaluated, allowing for time to develop a useful solution.

The findings on the field encourages researchers to believe that it might be especially effective in underdeveloped nations where health equipment and facilities are in short supply. In such locations, dipstick technology has the potential to tackle agricultural problems, health issues, and environmental disasters that plague nations and communities.

The UQ team of scientists maintain that nucleic acid purification is a powerful tool in molecular biology but too cumbersome to use for most field operations, as the process is time-consuming and requires the expertise of trained and specialized workers. Extracting genetic material from biological samples has always been done in a laboratory setting and usually involves complex machinery and time to process the information.

The researchers had a breakthrough when they discovered a proprietary medium that could capture and isolate nucleic acids while preventing the degradation of the genetic sample during the process of washing away contaminants. Dipstick technology was born, which passed preliminary testing on a narrow range of biological samples only to discover later that a much broader range of samples could also be captured and analyzed effectively.

UniQuest, the commercial arm of UQ, has filed a patent for their dipstick technology, but they are also seeking commercial partners who are willing to finance large-scale production for the purpose of distributing the tech to less developed countries. Regardless of the logistics of who uses the dipstick, its application and role in modern medicine is tantamount to advancing the science of medicine.

Smart Wound Dressing

Smart Wound Dressing Emits Light When Dressing Needs to Come Off

The human skin provides a natural barrier to pathogens and serves as the first line of defense against harmful microbes. When the skin’s integrity is broken via cuts, sores, or other wounds, the site of broken skin potentially becomes an entryway for a systemic infection. Hence, good wound care is crucial from developing sepsis, or widespread infection that can lead to multi-organ failure, particularly in people with chronic diseases, e.g. diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, or those who are immunocompromised, e.g. receiving chemotherapy, immunotherapy, battling active HIV infection.

Good wound care technique is largely dependent on the specific characteristics of the wound: nature of wound, size, amount of exudate, illness that can exacerbate wound, etc. However, one thing clinicians agree on is that the wound should be kept covered until a temporary barrier, like a scab, forms to prevent infection. Checking on status of wound healing may require frequent dressing changes, which can be detrimental to proper healing. As a result, Swiss scientists collectively from University Hospital Zurich, Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM), EMPA, and ETH Zurich developed a type of smart wound dressing called Flusitex—short for fluorescence sensing integrated into medical textiles.

Flusitex works by monitoring the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of the wound. When normal healing is progressing well, pH jumps to 8 before resting around 5 or 6. If the wound’s healing trajectory deviates from standard healing protocols, or the wound becomes chronic, pH may oscillate between 7 and 8. Integrated into the smart wound dressing are pyranine and benzalkonium chloride molecules. Pyranine is a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, which enable the dressing to fluoresce when a UV light is shined on the bandage at an internal pH of 7.5—an indication the chronic wound is on the verge of healing—which alerts clinicians to leave the dressing alone. Benzalkonium chloride, an antiseptic, is particularly known for killing Staphylococus aureas bacteria, which are commensal on the human skin and may cause opportunistic infections if allowed to enter the wound bed.

To make Flusitex more accessible and user-friendly, scientists are exploring ways to allow an app and camera from a smartphone to interpret fluorescing pH changes on the smart wound dressing so that users can monitor wound healing progress from home.

Life of Biomedical Gadgets

Prolonging Life of Biomedical Gadgets by Improving Adhesion with Electrografting

Modern-age humans have found a way to coexist with technology to the point where they have become crucial to life, as in the case of pacemakers, or otherwise made life easier, e.g. artificial limbs, cochlear implants, and smart technology-based wearables. To help ensure longevity of implanted biomedical devices, a scientist from University of Delaware (UD), along with a team of engineers, have developed an electrografting surface modification method that improves adhesion between biological neural tissue and inorganic surfaces.

In order for implanted devices to function properly within the body, successful interface, or communication, between nervous system components (largely directed by the brain) and the mechanical object has to occur. Scientists have been exploring a conjugated polymer called PEDOT, or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), for its potential role as the interface. However, in experiments PEDOT was found to have limited adhesive properties to solid substrates, or mechanical devices. As a result, harmful residue can deposit into surrounding tissue, thereby shortening the lifespan of the device.

Adhesion by electrografting surface modification is the solution concocted by the UD scientists. Electrograft is an electrochemical oxidation-reduction reaction by which organic molecules attach to solid conducting substrates by forming a metallorganic bond at the substrate-polymer interface. The conventional process usually takes several steps, but the scientists have created a two-step method that produces a strong PEDOT film that tightly bonds organic tissue to metal objects, while maintaining electrical activity, or communication, between the two components. Another advantage of using electrografts is that a wide variety of materials can be used as the conducting substrate, including gold, platinum, nickel, stainless steel, silicon, metal oxides, and glassy carbon.

With increasing dependence on biotechnology to keep humans alive, extending the life of biomedical gadgets becomes increasingly vital. With enhanced adhesive properties of PEDOT via electrografting, both staying alive and staying alive longer can be achievable.

Soy Air Filter

Biodegradable Soy Air Filter Works Better than Standard Filters

An inexpensive, environment-friendly, biodegradable soy air filter was created by scientists at Washington State University, collaborating with the University of Science and Technology in Beijing, that can filter out gases, like carbon monoxide, that conventional air filters cannot. Poor air quality impacts the inhabitants of several industrialized cities worldwide, of which repeated exposure to toxins can lead to health issues, such as asthma, lung cancer, and heart disease.

The research teams developed the soy-based air filter using natural purified soy protein and bacterial cellulose (polysaccharide that give cell wall of plants and microbes their strength). Soy has 18 functional chemical groups that can be exploited to capture toxic air pollutants on a molecular scale. An acrylic acid treatment was used to expose, or unwind, the amino acid groups that enable the soy-based filter to trap both small particulate air matter and chemical pollutants that people living in severely polluted regions inhale on a regular basis.

Currently available air filters are made of plastic, and in some cases glass and petroleum, with micron-sized fibers that can filter small particles found in smoke, soot, and vehicle exhaust. However, gaseous air pollutants, like carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and other organic volatile compounds (VOCs) escape typical filters—not to mention synthetic materials used to create standard air filters can also contribute to air pollution.

Cellulose used to engineer the soy air filters is a natural structure that’s already used in several biomedical applications, such as adhesives, wound dressings, plastics, and scaffolds for tissue regeneration, and is an inexpensive and earth-friendly material. Gelatin and cellulose-based filters have also been developed by the scientists, which are being applied to disposable paper towels to increase its strength and absorbency so less waste is created.

With the goal of maintaining a sustainable Earth, the researchers hope to improve the health and welfare of the public utilizing cheap, biodegradable materials to improve overall quality of life and balance out new emerging technology that may not be as green-friendly.

Rapid HIV Test

Viral Load Can Be Detected with New Rapid HIV Test

Scientists at Imperial College London, together with DNA Electronics, have developed a rapid HIV test using a USB drive that can detect HIV viral load in 20 minutes. Only a drop of blood is needed for the USB stick—similar to diabetics checking glucose levels with a fingerstick—which is then inserted into a desktop or portable notebook, where it communicates with an app, feeding data to the software, and the user can read the results in less than 30 minutes. The viral load, if any, is detected through the presence of the virus genetic material, RNA; if present, amount is also indicated in the results. Using blood samples of 991 participants, results were 95 percent accurate compared with the traditional method, which takes at least a couple of days to process results.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 37 million people worldwide are living with HIV/AIDS, of which 2 million are children. Majority of the population infected with the virus reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, 18.2 million are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to keep viral count down. With the rapid HIV test, HIV levels can be easily tracked at home for ART recipients to determine medication efficacy. If drug resistance occurs, regular home monitoring can detect it sooner than later and a new treatment regimen can be implemented. Also, in developing regions where access to technology is limited, the USB stick technique can easily test for HIV using a portable device, and implement treatment to help staunch transmission, as in the case of mother to child via birth or breastfeeding.

The rapid HIV test using a USB drive with a litmus medium that detects change in pH as evidence of RNA material of the virus is still in its beginning phase and will be a long time before we see it used in homes. However, scientists have high hopes for its use and are concomitantly developing the device to detect hepatitis virus as well.

Portable Vaccine Kit

Portable Vaccine Kits Can Be Transported to High-Risk Areas Without Power to Create On-the-Spot Vaccines by Just Adding Water

For vaccines to be effective, a continual chain of refrigeration is important to keep them viable. In areas where power sources are limited or nonexistent, such as developing nations, or in areas where elaborate medical equipment isn’t found for miles around, a portable vaccine kit could be the turning key to keeping an epidemic in check, thus saving many lives.

A team of researchers at Harvard’s Wyss Institute sought out to create a practical and mobile method to create medical treatments anywhere. A portable system was developed that enables the technician to produce an essential biomolecule as needed without requiring the aid of a refrigerator or a laboratory—instead, simply add water.

At the core of the scientists’ “portable biomolecular manufacturing kit” are two freeze-dried pellets that can be mixed and matched to create different compounds that cater to specific treatment modalities. Water is the only component needed to rehydrate and mix the ingredients. The pellets have a shelf life of at least a year, potentially longer.

The pellets come in two forms: reaction pellets and instruction pellets. The former contains no cells and genetic material and acts as the base that can be used to generate different drugs, whereas the instruction pellets contain DNA instructions to direct the reaction pellet and thus specifies the type of medication to produce. By combining the two pellets with water, a vast array of vaccines, antibacterial peptides, and antibody conjugates can be manufactured on the spot. Therapy from the rehydrated pellets can be administered orally, topically, or as injections to treat food poisoning, prevent wounds from getting infected, and dispense vaccines during a viral outbreak, such as influenza.

The portable vaccine kit is also an inexpensive biomolecular manufacturing kit at approximately three cents per microliter. Apart from its clinical use, researchers and students can use the kits for study purposes when state-of-the-art facilities and appliances are inaccessible.

Curing Malaria

New Synthetic Protein May Be Key to Curing Malaria

Australian scientists at the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute in Brisbane have identified and isolated a protein called PD-L2 that plays a major role in immune system function to help ward off malarial infection. PD-L2 proteins are naturally found on dendritic cells—a form of antigen-presenting cells that initiate a larger immune response by activating T cells—and are thus responsible for T cells attacking pathogens, as well as overriding any ‘stop attack’ signals when the pathogen still exists. The Australian team noticed in severe malaria cases, PD-L2 levels were diminished, and T cells were given ‘stop attack’ signals by dendritic cells, resulting in severe disease. The scientists manufactured a synthetic version of PD-L2, and when tested in mice, revealed curing malaria can be a reality soon.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were 438,000 deaths by malaria last year, and 3.2 billion—half the world’s population—is at risk. Malaria is caused by Plasmodium species, or parasites transmitted through mosquitoes. Malaria is currently treatable and preventable with medications; however, drug resistance is an issue that frequently arises with medications. Even with treatment, malaria can recur without new exposure as the parasite can lie dormant in organs and replicate without alerting the immune system—a factor that has proven difficult for scientists to come up with an effective vaccine.

The scientists infected mice with a large fatal dose of malaria, and they were then administered three doses of synthetic PD-L2. All the mice were cured. Five months later, the same mice were reinfected with malaria-causing parasites, but more doses of PD-L2 were unneeded as the mice did not develop malaria.

The key to curing malaria may not exist in a fancy new drug or even a vaccine but by stimulating our natural immune response to fight harder. More research needs to be conducted before human trials but scientists remain hopeful.

Ultrasound Hypertension Therapy

Ultrasound Hypertension Therapy Delivers Promising Results to High Blood Pressure Patients Unresponsive to Medication

According to a new study, people with type 2 diabetes and comorbid treatment-resistant high blood pressure may have better treatment response with ultrasound hypertension therapy. A research team in Tohoku University’s Department of Diabetes Technology in Japan treated 212 patients with type 2 diabetes, who also had persistent hypertension, with ultrasound technology and found overall decreased blood pressure levels in the study groups.

The subjects were divided into four groups. Two groups each received 20 minutes of low-intensity ultrasound irradiation to the forearm at different frequencies—one at 500 kHz and the second at 800 kHz—where the other two groups served as control groups and received placebos. After treatment, blood pressure and heart rates were significantly decreased compared to pretreatment values. Values were also lower than the ones in the placebo groups, particularly subjects from the 500 kHz group.

Mechanism of action as to how ultrasound waves decrease blood pressure is unclear. One theory is that it subdues sympathetic nerve pathways from the forearm to the rest of the cardiovascular system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the “flight-and-fight” response in humans and a major homeostatic regulatory component in the body that is largely responsible for vasoconstriction, which increases blood pressure.

The 212 participants of the study experienced no adverse effects post-treatment. Ultrasound technology has been safely used for several years as a medical imaging and diagnostic tool, particularly for fetal imaging. It uses sound waves, similar to sonar, instead of ionizing radiation, like x-rays and gamma rays that can harm organs and tissues especially with repeated use.

More research is needed to establish complete safety and efficacy. However, ultrasound hypertension therapy appears to be an inexpensive and noninvasive treatment protocol for intractable hypertension.

Earpiece Seizure Sensor

Epileptic Episodes Can Be Predicted with an Earpiece Seizure Sensor

A team of epileptologists, or seizure disorder experts, from the University Hospital Bonn, in association with Cosinuss—a technology company that specializes in wearable tech—have developed EPItect, an earpiece seizure sensor meant to be worn as a hearing aid and functions alongside a smartphone to forewarn the wearer of an impending seizure.

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked recurring seizures, which can include sensory disturbance, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. Seizures usually occur due to a sudden increase of electrical activity in the brain. Monitoring uncontrolled epileptic epsiodes entails an overnight hospital stay while connected to an electroencephalography device to measure brainwave activity.

EPItect works by detecting signs that indicate an imminent seizure, such as an accelerated heart rate and increased frequency of certain movement patterns, e.g. getting up and down for no real reason, buttoning and unbuttoning a jacket, twitching, lip smacking, and momentary syncope. The information is sent to a smartphone that is keyed into a central database that matches the signs with its algorithm. Once confirmed as a positive sign, an alert is sent to the patient, family members, and the physician.

Seizures can occur while asleep. Hence, EPItect can help physicians accurately keep track of the frequency and severity of seizures, and tailor medications so that the most effective treatment can be used to help curb seizures, which can cause cardiac arrest and other serious complications and injuries.

The team of scientists has managed to pare down the earpiece seizure sensor into an earbud. Work is undergoing to further decrease the gadget size and advance it into clinical trials for the purpose of monitoring epileptic episodes to help decrease seizure attacks.